We can divide Indian agriculture into three important seasons into three types. According to the environmental conditions, these seasons are the Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops seasons.
In this blog on rabi crops, we will give all the details of Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops with their examples.
Details Of Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops
What is the Rabi Season:-
The word rabi means rain. The sowing time of the rabi crops is between September to December. And harvesting time of rabi crops is between April and May. In India, we mainly know rabi crops as winter crops because the sowing time of rabi crops is in the winter.
Late sowing of rabi crops starts in mid-November till the end of December. Common examples of rabi crops are Barley, Bengal Gram, Rapeseed, Kinnow, Lemon, Mango, Garlic, Lettuce, Pea, etc. Check all the list of rabi crops.
What Is the Kharif Season:-
Kharif season is a very important season in the entire year, with major crops that give very high production. Farmers mainly do sowing of Kharif crops during the monsoon rains. Sowing mainly starts in June and it continues until late sowing in September.
We also know these crops as rain crops because these crops require an outrageous amount of water. Another name for the Kharif season is paddy crops because paddy is a very important crop grown in this season.
The harvesting of these crops starts from the month of September to October. Major crops that come under Kharif season are paddy, Litchi, Ridge guard, Mango, Muskmelon, Chili, Green beans, Okra, Banana, Cantaloupe, Chickoo, Coconut, Dates, Figs, Guava, Jamun, Litchi, etc Check All the examples of Kharif crops.
What Is the Zaid Season:-
Farmers grow zaid crops between the rabi season and Kharif season. These are short-duration crops. Farmers show these crops start from October to November month and harvesting of zaid crops is done in March to June.
The time of sowing for zaid crops changes place to place depending on the rainy season. So the sowing period of the zaid crops is not fixed, it changes all over India.
Common examples of zaid crops are Potato, Sunflower, Groundnut, Sugarcane, Tobacco etc. you can check all the examples of zaid crops.
What are the requirements for the Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops Season?
The cropping season gives the proper time period to the farmers for sowing and harvesting. Crop season is also very important to maintain the availability of food the entire year.
Farmers make the cropping season according to the climatic requirements of the crop. For example, we grew paddy in the Kharif season because it needs cold temperatures for good growth and production.
What is the fundamental difference between Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops?
There are many major differences between Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops. Through this table, we will help you understand all the differences.
|Rabi Crops:-||Kharif Crops:-||zaid crops:-|
|We know Rabi crops as winter crops because the sowing of these crops starts in winter.||We know Kharif crops as monsoon crops because the sowing time of kharif crops starts at the beginning of monsoon rain.||We know zaid crops as summer crops because the time of sowing in zaid crops is in the summer between the Rabi and Kharif seasons.|
|In October and December, we harvest Rabi crops.||The harvesting of Kharif crops starts in September and continues till October.||we do the harvesting of zaid crops from march to April last.|
|Major water requirements of rabi crops are fulfilled by winter precipitation. These crops require cold temperatures for good vegetative growth and production.||Water requirement of the kharif crops is more than compared to rabi crops. So these crops are called monsoon crops. These crops fulfill the requirements for water by rain.||These are the short time period crops, mostly zaid crops are cultivated by irrigation.|
|Climatic requirements of the rabi crop are cold temperature for good growth and development.||The climatic requirements of kharif crops are hot and humid. Under these conditions, the kharif crop gives good vegetative growth and production.||The climatic requirement of zaid crop is a warm temperature for wonderful production and proper plant vegetative growth.|
|temperature requirement of rabi crops, the minimum temperature required for the initial phase is between 10-12 degrees Celsius (°C) and the maximum temperature required for the proper growth and development is 18°C-21°C.||The temperature requirement of Kharif Crops is very specific. The minimum temperature required for initial growth and germination is 16–20 °C (61–68 °F). For Kharif crops, the maximum temperature for development and proper production is between 18–32 °C (64–90 °F)||For example, the zaid crop’s temperature required 25 to 30 degrees celsius for initial germination and growth. During the harvesting of zaid crops. It requires the temperature to be up to 40 degrees celsius.|
|A long day of sunlight is required for the flowering of rabi crops.||The flowering of Kharif crops requires short days of sunlight.||The flowering of zaid crop requires mid-day sunlight.|
Major State growing Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops:-
Rabi crops:- Major rabi crop-growing states are Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh Maximum production of rabi crops in India comes from these states.
Kharif Crops:- Major kharif crop growing states are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharashtra from these states of India. We get maximum production of Kharif crops.
Zaid crops:- Major zaid crop growing states are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, and Sikkim. From these states of India, we get maximum production of zaid crops.
Further, Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops are divided into two important categories:-
- Food Crops
- Cash Crops
Food crops:- Food crops are the type of crops that are cultivated to feed the human population. The main purpose of food crops is to provide sustainable food the whole year to the population.
Common crops that come under food crops are maize, plantains, potatoes, rice, sorghum, soybeans, sweet potatoes, wheat, etc.
Cash Crops:- Cash crops are the type of crops that are grown to take a direct profit by selling these crops. Farmers also know these crops as profit crops.
Common crops under these cash crops are oilseed crops, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, vegetables, and fruits. Other important crops are Bengal gram, Red gram, Onion, Rapeseed, Kiwi, Mustard, Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Lavender, Broccoli, Geranium, Ginger, etc check all examples of cash crops.
|Major Crops Cultivated In Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops.|
|Rabi Crops:-||Kharif Crops:-||Zaid crops:-|
|Barley, Bengal Gram, Rapeseed, Mustard Oat, Wheat, Almond, Banana, Ber, Date palm, Grapes, Grapefruit, Kinnow, Lemon, Mango, Mulberry, Orange, etc.||Jowar, Maize, Millets, Rice, Almond, Apple, Apricot, Banana, Cantaloupe, Chikoo, Coconut, Dates, Figs, Guava, Jamun, Litchi, Ridge guard, Mango, Muskmelon, Sweet orange, Pomegranate, Plum, Pear, Phalsa, Papaya, Peach, Sarda, Walnut, Watermelon, etc.||Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber, Bitter gourd, Pumpkin, Brinjal, Potato, Sunflower, Groundnut, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Jute, Cotton, etc.|
Dividing the crops into Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops is very important; it maintains the availability of food the entire year for the human population. Just by knowing the season of the crops, farmers maintain crop rotation as we know. Most of the farmers in India are uneducated, so by this system they can grow according to the environmental requirement of the crops.