Hello, welcome to the new blog on the rabi crop. We are going to give all details of mustard farming after reading this complete guide on mustard cultivation.
We are very sure you will become an expert in mustard farming. In this mustard growing guide, we have included Introduction to mustard plant, Use of mustard, climatic requirement, soil requirements, varieties and seed, fertilizer, weed control, irrigation, insects, disease, harvesting and post-harvesting.
Contents In Blog
Mustard Farming In Short
|Botanical Name:-||black mustard:- Brassica nigra,
Indian mustard:- Brassica juncea,
white/yellow mustard:- Brassica alba.
|Plant size:-||5 to 19 feet.|
|Mustard seed size:-||1 to 2mm.|
|Origin:-||Black mustard:-North Africa, Indian mustard:-India, white/yellow mustard:- Mediterranean region.|
|Use:-||Mainly used as edible oil.|
|Climatic Requirement:-||germination 22-27 degrees Celsius, Growth and development 15 to 25 degrees Celsius.|
|Soil Requirement:-||Alluvial loam soil, PH 7 TO 9.|
|Varieties:-||RH 7847, RH9006, Saurabh (RH 8113), RH8545, Candelbelespan, RH781.|
|Fertilizer:-||FYM:- 17 -25 Quintel, nitrogen:- 120-130 kg/ha, phosphorus 40-50 kg/ha, potassium 60 -70 kg/ha, calcium:-10-15 kg/ha.|
|Irrigation:-||25 to 30 days after sowing,55 to 65 days after sowing.|
|Insects:-||Mustard Saw Fly, Painted Bug, Mustard Aphid, Cabbage head borer.|
|Disease:-||Alternaria Blight, White rust, Downy mildew, Powdery mildew.|
|Yield:-||Average yield:-10 -15 q/ha, highest yield:- 25 -30 q/ha.|
Introduction To mustard plant
Mainly, there are three types of mustard. We can understand the difference between them by their colour First one is black mustard Botanical Name is Brassica nigra, Second type of mustard is brown mustard also known as Indian mustard Botanical name is Brassica juncea, and the last type of mustard is white/yellow mustard Botanical name is Brassica alba.
Mustard is a Rabi crop. We grew it all over the world; it is a very important spice seed of the mustard is used to make cooking oil, which is the most used kitchen oil on the earth.
The size of the mustard plant is between 5 to 19 feet, depending on the environmental condition and nutrients in the soil. Mustard seed size is between 1 to 2 millimetres and the diameter of mustard seed is between 0.039 to 0.079 millimetres in diameter.
- Black mustard:- The origin place of the Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is north Africa ?
- Indian mustard:- The origin place of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is India
- white/yellow mustard:- The origin place of white/yellow mustard is the Mediterranean region.
Use Of Mustards
We used mustard as one of the major spices all over the world; we know mustard for its hot and pungent taste just because of this hot and pungent taste. Mustard oil is very popular as kitchen oil. Mustard has antibacterial properties and is rich in acidity, so it doesn’t require any refrigeration. We can store it for a long time.
We use mustard oil because of its antibacterial properties. It helps our body to protect us from harmful bacteria. We also use mustard oil to improve skin and hair health. We use mustard oil as pain relief and in many research; they found mustard has anti-cancer properties; it slows down the growth of cancer ♋ cells.
We mainly use mustard oil as edible oil, rapeseed and palm oil are also used as edible kitchen oil, but mustard is the first choice all over the world as edible oil. The second is rapeseed and the third kitchen oil all over the world is palm oil.
Mustard is very popular among farmers because it comes on the cash crop list. Farmers can earn a direct profit by the cultivation of mustard.
Climatic Requirement for mustard farming
As we have previously discussed, mustard is mainly grown as a rabi crop ?but if we compare mustard with other rabi crops based on the climatic requirements, then we find it differs slightly from other rabi crops because it is very sensitive to overheat weather and cold temperature.
During the germination period, mustard requires a high temperature of 25 to 27 degrees Celsius, but for proper mustard farming it requires a low temperature, we have to maintain the temperature between 15 to 25 degrees Celsius, this temperature is very suitable for the proper mustard cultivation.
There are three very important factors that directly affect the oil content in the mustard seed.
- Cold temperature:- mustard requires some days of cold temperature in the whole mustard cultivation period. This increase the oil content in the seed.
- Sunlight:- Proper amount of sunlight for the mustard is very important. It helps the plant in vegetative growth.
- Moisture:- Proper moisture should be maintained. It will also help in getting a good size of mustard seed and also increase the oil content in the seed.
We have experienced during our mustard farming yield is decreased because of frost and high humidity at the time of flowering, so from there we learned in flowering condition frost and high humidity is dangerous.
This will decrease the yield of the mustard crop. More humidity will invite insects and pests that will damage the crop.
If the temperature in your area goes below zero degrees Celsius, then we will not suggest that you do mustard farming because it is a very sensitive crop ? and it will get damaged in low temperatures.
If rainfall is between 70 to 100 cm per year, this is best for the cultivation of mustard. If good irrigation faculty is available, then less rainfall will not matter, or if rainfall is more than 130cm per year, it is dangerous for the mustard plants.
Soil Requirement For Mustard Farming
For proper mustard cultivation, we need to cultivate it in well-drained soil because the mustard plant is very sensitive to water logging. It can’t handle waterlogged conditions. The roots of the plant can get damaged in this condition and the plant will die.
We can cultivate mustard in a variety of soil, like clay soil, heavy clay soil, sandy soil, Alluvial loam, loamy soil
We will suggest cultivating the mustard in the Alluvial loam soil because it is best for mustard farming. we don’t recommend farmers cultivate mustard on Black cotton soil because roots of the mustard can’t grow properly in this type of soil.
We can easily cultivate mustard in acidic soil, but for best growth, development and yield alkaline soil and neutral soil is the best for the cultivation.
PH should be between 7 to 9. It is most suitable for mustard growing. As we have observed, we can grow mustard in sandy soil or shallow soil just as we need to check the proper moisture availability.
We will also suggest farmers do soil testing to know the proper nutritional strength and weaknesses of their field.
Different Varieties for Mustard Farming
There are many varieties of mustard that farmers can do Mustard Farming according to their needs and environmental conditions. We should select resistant varieties according to the need of the place.
- The aphid Tolerant variety of the mustard is RH 7847 and RH9006
- Alternaria blight tolerant variety of the mustard is Saurabh (RH 8113)
- White Rust tolerant variety of the mustard is RH8545
- Salt Tolerant variety of mustard is NDR 8501CS52
- Frost tolerant variety of mustard is Candelbelespan
- Drought tolerant variety of mustard is RH781
Another different important variety of mustard is T-151, K-88, P.S-66, RLM 198, RLM 514, ITSA, TL 15, T -36, PT 303, PT 30, PT 507.
Land Preparation for Mustard Farming
For growing mustard, we should plough the field two to three times with a mouldboard plough and after this one or two plough with a harrow cultivator, this will break the soils into small fine granules that are required for mustard cultivation.
We will suggest farmers do deep ploughing. It will help mustard roots to penetrate deep into the soil. With a deep plough, vegetative growth of the mustard will increase and it will also affect the yield of the mustard.
For farmers who are cultivating mustard in dry-land areas, we will recommend them to do pre-irrigation before sowing, because mustard seeds require proper moisture to germinate.
As we have observed, many farmers grow mustard on mixed crops in this condition. We will suggest growing mustard as the major crop because it is a very sensitive crop and grows in uncommon conditions. The farmer should remove all the unwanted plants and weeds from the field.
Fertilizer Requirement For Mustard Cultivation
We all know mustard is a very short-duration crop, but mustard has a deep root system and it observes nutrients from the soil quickly.
We can calculate the mustard nutrient requirement if we are growing mustard in one hectare and the yield is approx 35 to 40 quintals, it will take 120 to 130 kg nitrogen from the soil,40 to 50 kg phosphorus,60 to 70 kg of potassium, 10 to 15 kg calcium and some amount of magnesium from the soil.
So mustard farming requires a large portion of nutrients and we will suggest farmers do proper nutrient management.
We will recommend farmers do soil testing before applying any chemical fertilizer in the field. 30 days Before sowing, give 17 to 25 tons of farmyard manure.
Make sure it is well rotten because partial rotten farmyard manure can grow and invite new insects, and pests into the field.
When we are cultivating mustard in irrigated conditions, the nitrogen fertilizer requirement is 85 to 160 kg per hectare. We will suggest giving half the amount of nitrogen as the Basal dose and the remaining half after 30 to 40 days of sowing.
The phosphorus requirement in irrigated conditions is 55 to 60 kg per hectare. Applying method is to use half the amount of phosphorus before the sowing as a basal dose and the remaining half as a top dressing 30 to 35 days after sowing.
Potassium requirements in rainy conditions for mustard are 15 to 20 kg per hectare application method of Potassium will be the same as nitrogen and phosphorus half dose before sowing and the remaining half dose after sowing.
When we cultivate mustard in the rained condition, then the nitrogen requirement is less than compared to an irrigated condition. It requires only 35 to 65 kg per hectare. We will suggest applying the full dose of nitrogen as the basal does. Phosphorus requirement is also very less in rainfed conditions as compared to irrigated conditions. The phosphorus requirement is 20 to 25 kg per hectare. We will suggest applying a full dose of phosphorus, as Basel does. In rainfed conditions, potassium is not required.
Applying the proper amount of fertilizer after soil testing will increase the yield of mustard.
Weed Management In Mustard Farming
Weed is the major competitor of the crops in the field. If we want a high yield, we have to make our farm clean from the weed, as we have studied before, the requirement of nutrients is more in mustard cultivation as compared to any other rabi crop like Bengal gram so we need to protect nutrients of the soil from weeds.
Weeds not only compete with the mustard crop, for nutrients in the soil; they also takes space in the field, for sunlight, also compete with the mustard crop.
Before sowing the mustard crop? clean the field, and all the weeds from the field should be removed. After proper tillage, leave the field for sun-drying. from this, all the remaining weed roots will dry and get destroyed.
We all know the growth of the weed is more compared to the crop, so the first few days after sowing are very important for us to keep the field clean from the weed, so we will recommend farmers to do first weeding after 25 to 30 days of sowing. The first four to five-weeks are very important, to keep the field free from weed.
After irrigation, the growth of the weed increases so fast, in this condition, we will recommend farmers to do weeding 7 days after irrigation. agriculture scientists reported in different projections that heavy weeds can damage up to 20 to 50 percent of the mustard yield.
We can control weeds in mustard farming by two methods: the first mechanical method and the second method is chemical method. Both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages.
In the mechanical method, we take the help of labor and some instrument like a scabbard (khurpi) or any sharp object, to remove the weed from the field but it is a time-taking method and labour-intensive method, it will work well when weed density is less.
In the chemical method of weed control, we use chemicals like 2, 4-D to control the weed. The major benefit of the chemical weed control method is that it is fast and beneficial in controlling the high-density weed. It is fast but not good for the environment and human health chemical spray should be used with proper protection.
Irrigation Management For Mustard Cultivation
The water requirement of a mustard crop? is between 25 to 40 cm/year. It also depends on the environmental condition. There are two important stages of irrigation first state is the flowering stage, which comes after 25 to 30 days of sowing. It is a very important stage, if irrigation will not be available at this stage, it will affect the yield of the crop.
The second important stage of irrigation is the pod filling stage, also known as the pod formation stage. It will come in 55 to 65 days of sowing. At this stage, the mustard plant requires more water for its development. Irrigation in the first stage will help the plant for vegetative growth and the second stage of irrigation is for reproductive growth and development of the plant.
If the farmer can’t give two irrigation of the mustard, then we will suggest the farmer give only one irrigation in between 35 to 45 days.
The drainage facility in the field should be good because the mustard plant is very sensitive to water-logging conditions, as they can damage the plant in this condition.
As we have observed in many parts of the world, farmers are doing mustard farming with no irrigation. They grow it as an unirrigated crop.
Major Insects Of Mustard
Mustard is a very sensitive crop. We have to protect our mustard farm from insects because insect attacks will decrease the yield and profit of farmers.
We are going to list the four most common insects from which we have to save our mustard farm.
- Mustard Saw Fly is the first insect and the botanical name is Athalia proxima
- The second insect is the Painted Bug and the botanical name is Bargrada cruciferarum
- The third damaging insect is Mustard Aphid and the botanical name is Lipadhis erysimi
- Fourth, the insect that damages the mustard crop is the Cabbage head borer and the botanical name is Hellula undalis
Mustard Saw Fly
It attacks the plant when the plant is young. This insect continues to feed on the plant leaves, it resulting in holes all over the leaves of the plant. In the larval stage, this insect uses to attack the plant, habit of this insect is continued feeding will cause plants to stand without leaves. In this condition, the plant dies after some time.
How to control Mustard Saw Fly in Mustard Farming
Hand-picking is the pest method we suggest farmers’ handpick in the larval stage, but this is not possible when the insect population is more than handpicking is not possible.
we are going to share the names of some insecticides, farmers can use of them when the insect population is out of control.
- First, the insecticide to control Mustard Saw Fly is Malathion 5% used as dust for one hectare, 20 to 25 kg required.
- Second, insecticide to control Mustard Saw Fly is Thiodan 4% used as dust for one hectare, 28 to 30 kg required.
- The third insecticide to control Mustard Saw Fly is Carbaryl 5% used as dust for one hectare 20 to 25 kg required.
It is one of the most dangerous insects in mustard farming. It damages the crop and decreases the yield of mustard.
The nymph of the painted bug causes major damage to the crop; it attacks the crop just after a few weeks of sowing, and, most times, it attacks the crop just after some days of sowing. We can easily identify the nymph of this insect by its color.
When it is just hatched, the color of the body of the insect is bright orange with dark red eyes, but the adult insect of the painted bug is totally different. It is yellow with spots and dots on the body.
How to control Painted Bugs in Mustard Farming
We can easily find this pest on the leaves of the mustard crop. Collecting and destroying it is a good way to control this pest. but if the population is uncontrollable, then we use the chemical method of killing the insect.
Many farmers find a unique way to control Painted Bug, that is, they used to mix crude oil emulsion 5 liters per hectare it used to kill hidden bugs in the field.
Two chemical methods for controlling this are:
- Malathion 5% used as dust for one hectare of 20 to 25 kg required
- Carbaryl 5% is used as dust for one hectare. 20 to 25 kg required.
these two insecticides can use one of them.
Both nymphs and adults of this insect are dangerous. It sucks the plant sap and attacks the delegated part of the plant, Major problem with this insect is it grows at super speed, in some days after the attack you can see thousand of Mustard Aphid on the leaves and flowers of the plant in some uncontrolled condition it will totally cover your whole mustard farming field.
How to control Mustard Aphid in Mustard Farming
The two most common ways that farmers used to control this Mustard Aphid are Early sowing. This is most practiced, and the second is using an Aphid-resistant variety of seeds.
- Malathion 5% used as dust for one hectare of 20 to 25 kg required
- Carbaryl 5% used as dust for one hectare, 20 to 25 kg required.
with these two insecticides, we can use one of them to control Mustard aphids.
Cabbage head borer
it will mainly damage the leaves of the mustard plant stems and other delicate parts of mustard plant-like pods and flowers.
How to control cabbage head borers
Systemic insecticides are used to control cabbage head borers such as monocrotophos
Disease Management In mustard Cultivation
There are many diseases that damage the mustard and decrease the yield of the crop. Two major diseases: Alternaria Blight and White rust can damage up to 60 to 80% mustard yield, so it is very important, we are going to list important disease that damage the mustard plant.
- First, the most damaging insect is Alternaria Blight Botanical name is Alternaria brassicae
- The second most damaging insect is White rust Botanical name is Cystopus candidus
- The third damaging insect of mustard is Downy mildew Botanical name is Peronospera brassicae
- The fourth damaging insect of mustard is Powdery mildew Botanical name is Erysiphe poligoni
We can see the spots on the leaves of the mustard. The size of the dark spot can reach up to 1cm. We can easily identify the linear dark spots on the stems and seed pods of the mustard plant. The major problem with this disease is the speed of growth.
It spreads so rapidly and just in a few weeks it infects all over the field.
Control of Alternaria blight
Do regular spray with any of these chemicals at the gap of 2 to 3 weeks.
- farmers can use Dithane M-45 (0.2%)
- or farmer can also use Daconil (0.2%)
We will suggest spraying these chemicals from the flowering stage.
White rust is a widely spread disease, mainly destroy the floral part of the mustard plant. Because of this yield decreases, we can see white spots all over the mustard plant. It grows from the younger plant and slowly infects the leaves and inflorescence of the plant.
Control of white rust
Two very important methods to control write rust are:
- Crop rotation; – Regular crop rotation is a very common way to control it.
- Clean Cultivation, which means the field should be clean from all weeds and unwanted plants, seep that we are going to show should be clean from all impurities.
Downy mildew mainly attacks the young plant when the plant height is 2 to 5 inches. It slows down the growth and development of the plant. First, it appears as small patches, then the size of spots increases gradually. It also damages the flowers of the plant.
Control of Downy mildew in the mustard plant
Crop rotation is a very common way to control this disease. Downy mildew mainly comes from the weed plant search that plants and destroys the host plant. Spraying fungicides at regular intervals is also a way to control them.
Powdery mildew disease of the mustard plant
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease it affects the entire plant. We can easily observe this disease by white circular floury patches all over the leaves and stems.
Control of Powdery mildew in the mustard plant
The common way to control Powdery mildew is by spraying sulphur dust at 25 to 30 kg per hectare.
Harvesting & Storage Of Mustard
Before harvesting, we have to observe the field when 80 to 85% of pods turn yellow. Then it is the correct timing of harvesting.
Moisture percentage should not be over 35 to 40% in the seeds. We should check pods of the mustard plant is well matured or not because immature harvesting of pods will decrease the yield and oil percentage in the seeds.
The average yield of the mustard is 10 to 15 quintals per hectare, the highest yield can be over 25 to 30 quintals per hectare.
Source Most of the things that we have added to our website are self-experience by doing or by seeing, but some blogs and educational site helps us a lot to increase our knowledge. One of them is Featured Creatures, the other is mine gov thanks to both of them.
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