Ginger Farming With All The Important Details

Hello friends, welcome to our new blog on our website rabi crops. Today we are going to introduce a crop that helped us so much to recover the health that we were facing since the global pandemic. Because of atmospheric conditions and pollution, going nowhere or depending on anyone, I got thought about why I can’t farm by myself. So I started farming in my backyard field with very less investment and very little area. As this saves a lot of health problems, now, I am also doing commercial Ginger farming because I know it is the crop of the future as we can cultivate ginger with very less investment.

Now we are going to share with you all about our favorite “Spice bowl of world”, the so-called “Ginger”.

ginger farming feild

Basically, Ginger has many names based on the region. Let’s know these very popular names:

  • We know ginger as adrak in Hindi.
  • In the whole Chinese sub-continent, we know ginger as jiang.
  • The name jengibre is very popular in the Spanish language
  • zenzero is the Italian name for ginger.
  • People call gingembre in the French language.
  • zanjabeel is an Arabic name for ginger.
  • ingwer is a widespread name for ginger among the German people.

Now coming to ginger cultivation if we say it in simple words it is not rocket science we just need very little knowledge to cultivate as we just have basic knowledge, of how ginger is grown, what are climatic conditions required for ginger farming, and regions suitable to growing ginger, land preparation methods before starting ginger cultivation, soil which suits for cultivation, water requirements of the ginger plant, irrigation required and what are the propagation techniques and its varieties.

And in this blog, we are going to explain to you each and everything required for ginger farming.

water logged condition in ginger farming feild

Before knowing about ginger farming, the most important thing to know is its benefits and usage, like how it is useful for us.

First, let us know its health benefits and usage:

  • Ginger is one of the most used spices in the world and comes in many forms, including fresh, dried, pickled, preserved, crystallized, candied, and powdered/ground.
  • Protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) that normally afflicts individuals who habitually consume fatty foods
  • Ginger helps speed up the digestion process in our body and also treats digestive issues, such as indigestion, ulcers, and constipation.
  • Gingerol, the bioactive compound found in raw ginger, according to Ayurveda and modern research, boosts immunity with its antimicrobial and antifungal properties.
  • Ginger also contains large amounts of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Menstrual pain is a common symptom during a woman’s cycle, but incorporating ginger might make it more manageable in the pain.
  • Studies on ginger have shown that some benefits of gingerol may prevent some different types of cancers.
  • Ginger helps in controlling insulin levels, boosts metabolism, and aids in workout recovery, hence helping to aid in weight loss.

Ginger Farming In Short:

Botanical Name Of Potato:- Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Potato Family:- Zingiberaceae.
Origin Place Of Potato:- South-Eastern Asia.
Varieties:- 
  • Suprabha
  • Suruchi 
  • Suralibi
  • Himgiri
  • IISR Varada
  • IISR Mahima
  • IISR Regitha
Soil Requirement Of Potato:-  Well-drained sandy loam, clay loam, red loam, or lateritic loam with pH 6.0 to 6.5.
Temperature Requirement:- cool-weather crop

30°C to 35°C during the sowing period and 28°C to 35°C during the growth period.

Rainfall:- annual rainfall ranging from 100 to 150 cm.
Seed requirement:-  1,500-1,800 kg rhizomes per hectare.
Fertilizer Requirements:-  N-75 kg/ha,

P-25 kg/ha, 

K-50 kg/ha , 

25-30 tons Farm Yard Manure per ha. 

Propagation:- Rhizomes.
Harvesting:-  We can harvest multiple times if we do proper cultivation.

Ginger Farming In Detail:

Ginger, an indigenous plant, is an important spice crop in the world. Ginger is a herbaceous perennial crop. It belongs to the Zingiberaceae family known for Zingiber officinale Rosc. as a botanical name. They usually grow these as an annual for their underground rhizomes, having serial leafy shoots of 0.5 to 0.75m in height. It is one of the oldest spices, with a distinct flavor and pungency. Depends on the climatic conditions of the country, we can start ginger farming in any of the three seasons as rabi crops, Kharif crops, or zaid crops.

You will be happy to know that ginger is one of the first spices that has been exported from Asian countries to Europe with the spice trade route, and ancient Greeks and Romans used ginger as spices in their food.

India is the largest producer and exporter of ginger to over 50 countries, accounting for over 70% of world production. The other important ginger-producing countries in the world are China, Taiwan, Nigeria, Jamaica, Thailand, Australia, Brazil, Japan, and Indonesia. Dry ginger has a good demand all over foreign countries and India is the largest exporter of dry ginger as well. 

germinated ginger seed

They are doing ginger farming in almost all the states of India. The major ginger-growing states are Kerala, West Bengal, and North-Eastern Region. The northeast region is emerging as India’s organic ginger hub, which is one of the highest ginger productivity zones in the world.

Ginger produced from Northeastern states of India is reported to have a higher oil and oleoresin content than ginger from other parts of the country.

100 grams of raw ginger contain:-

  • Raw ginger contains 79% water
  • 18% carbohydrates
  • 2% protein
  • 1% fat (table)
  • Raw ginger supplies 333 kilojoules (80 kilocalories) of food energy.
  • and contains moderate amounts of vitamin B6 (12% of the Daily Value, DV).
  • dietary minerals, magnesium (12% DV), and manganese (11% DV).

Ginger contains an oleoresin (6.5%), commercially known as `Gingirene’, which is obtained by solvent-extraction from ground ginger. The other components of dry ginger are moisture-10.85%, volatile oil-1.8%, water extract-19.6%, cold alcohol extract-6.0%, starch-53%, crude fiber-7.7%, crude protein-12.4%, total ash-6.64%, water-soluble ash-5.48% and acid-insoluble ash-0.14%.

We can market ginger in different forms such as raw ginger, dry ginger, ginger powder, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, ginger ale, ginger candy, ginger beer, brined ginger, ginger wine, ginger squash, ginger flakes, etc.

  • It is one of the most valuable cash crops and we widely used in food, beverage, confectionery, and medicine.
  • We use ginger in the production of carbonated drinks in confectionery, pickles, and pharmaceutical preparations.
  • Dry ginger is used for the manufacturing of oil, oleoresin, essence, soft drink, non-alcoholic beverages, and vitaminised effervescent soft drinks.
  • They used the essential oil and oleoresin in the manufacture of flavoring essences and in perfumery.
  • We can steep them in boiling water to make ginger herb tea, to which honey may be added.
  • We often use the juice from ginger roots as a seasoning in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood, meat, and vegetarian dishes.

There are various types of ginger based on region preferences. To know more about them, I have listed them below:

Name of variety for ginger farming :- About the variety:-
Suprabha (PGS-35):-
  • The rhizome core for Suprabha is whitish-yellow, and the average weight of the fresh rhizomes per clump is 200 g. The dry recovery (%) is 20.5 and the crude fiber (%) content is 4.4.
  • The essential oil and the oleoresin content of the rhizomes are 1.9 and 8.9%, respectively.
  • The variety is suitable for use as green ginger.
  • It produces 11.1 tillers per clump, and each tiller has 14.4 leaves.
  • The variety matures in 229 days and gives an average yield of 16.6 tons of fresh rhizomes per hectare (potential yield of 28.8 t/ha).
Suruchi (PGS-19):-
  • The rhizome core for Suruchi is greenish-yellow. The average weight of the fresh rhizomes per clump is 205 g.
  • The dry recovery (%) is 23.5, the crude fiber content (%) is 3.8, and the essential oil and oleoresin contents are 2.0 and 10.0%, respectively.
  • They can use this variety as green ginger.
  • It produces 11.8 tillers per clump, and each tiller has 13.5 leaves on average.
  • The variety matures in 218 days and gives a yield of 11.6 tons of fresh rhizomes per hectare (potential yield of 21.8 t/ha).
Suralibi (V1K1-3):-
  • The rhizome core for Israel is deep yellow, and the average weight of the fresh rhizomes per clump is 220 g.
  • The dry recovery (%) is 23, the crude fiber content (%) is 4, and the essential oil and oleoresin contents are 2.1 and 10.2%, respectively.
  • I can use this variety as green ginger.
  • It produces 14.5 tillers per clump, and each tiller has 14.3 leaves on average.
  • The variety matures in 225 days and yields 17.5 tons of fresh rhizomes per hectare (potential yield of 21.6 t/ha).
Himgiri:-
  • Best for green ginger, less susceptible to rhizome-rot disease, suitable for rain-fed condition
  • It gives an average yield of 13.5 t/ha (fresh)
IISR Varada:-
  • High yielder with tolerance to rhizome rot.
  • Adaptable to various agro-climatic conditions.
  • The dry recovery (%) is 20.7, the crude fiber content (%) is 3.29, and the essential oil and oleoresin contents are 1.75 and 6.7%, respectively.
  • The variety matures in 200 days and gives a yield of 22.2 t/ha.
IISR Mahima:-
  • The dry recovery (%) is 23, the crude fiber content (%) is 3.26, and the essential oil and oleoresin contents are 1.72 and 4.48%, respectively.
  • The variety matures in 200 days and gives a yield of 23.2 t/ha.
IISR Regitha:-
  • The dry recovery (%) is 19, the crude fiber content (%) is 4, and the essential oil and oleoresin contents are 2.36 and 6.3%, respectively.
  • The variety matures in 200 days and gives a yield of 22.4 t/ha.

 

knowing its benefits, the 1st step to the farm of any crop farming is Land preparation, which plays a key role in every crop that helps in the growth and development of plants, absorption of fertilizers, water intake, and many more things.

Land preparation for ginger farming:

The best time for planting ginger is during the first fortnight of May with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, while in the North-Eastern area, it is during April. Under irrigated conditions, we can plant well in advance during the middle of February or early March.

  • The land is to be ploughed 4 to 5 times or dug thoroughly to bring the soil to a fine tilth. Weeds, stubbles, roots, etc. are removed.
  • Beds of about one meter in width, 15 cm in height, and of any convenient length are prepared at an interspace of 40-50 cm in between beds.
  • With irrigated crops, ridges are formed 40 cm apart.
  • About 2,000 beds of 3 m x 1 m size are prepared on one hectare of land.
  • We do the planting in shallow pits, 4-5 cm deep, on 15 cm-high beds.
  • The recommended spacing for this crop is 30 cm x 30 cm under the bed system of planting.
  • A bed of 3m x lm can accommodate about 40 plants.

At the time of planting, well-composed cattle manure or compost at 25-30 tons per ha along with 2 tons of neem cake is to be applied along with 50 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O. They may be applied either by broadcasting over the beds prior to planting or applied in pits at the time of planting. If farmers grow green manure before planting the ginger, then the nitrogen requirements in the crop will decrease. 

Soil Requirement for ginger farming:

We can cultivate ginger in different soils, providing well-sufficient distributed rainfall or irrigation, and adequate drainage facilities should be available in the field. Ginger thrives best in well-drained soils like sandy loam, clay loam, red loam, or lateritic loam. 

We will not suggest to farmers to do ginger farming in the same soil year after year. The pH range required for growing ginger 6-6.5 is ideal for the good growth and production of the ginger crop. Ginger is a shade-loving crop, so we suggest farmers do ginger farming in orchards, or it is better to ensure that there is shade.

Soil type plays a major role in avoiding water stagnation in the field as it cannot survive in waterlogged conditions, so maintain a good drainage facility.

Irrigation requirement for proper Ginger farming:- 

If we are doing ginger farming in a rainy area, then proper rain for 5 to 6 months in a growing period is more than enough for ginger farming. But if we are doing ginger farming in irrigated conditions, or in a less rainy area, we have to provide extra irrigation because ginger farming requires 1350mm to 1450mm of water in the whole farming process.

We will suggest growers do 1st irrigation just after sowing the ginger. It will help them set on the soil. After this irrigation, do regular irrigation at the interval of 7 to 10 days. Farmers can also use drip irrigation systems as you can see in the image.

drip irrigation in ginger

Temperature Requirement for ginger farming:

We mainly cultivated ginger in the tropics from sea level to an altitude of 1500m, both under rainfed conditions and irrigated conditions. For successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall of 100 to 200 cm at the sowing time till the rhizomes sprout.

It is desirable to have temperatures of 30°C to 35°C during the sowing period for better germination in the ginger. During the growing period, it is necessary to have well-distributed rainfall or irrigation and dry weather with a temperature of 28ºC to 35oC for about a month before harvesting for a wonderful production. For good growth and production, high humidity throughout the crop period is desirable. We have grown and found that the growth and development of ginger is the best in both warm and humid climates.

Seed Rate For Growing Ginger:

We propagate ginger through mother rhizomes. We should always maintain the rhizomes weighing 30- 50g each. The length of the ginger rhizome should be 3-5cm and keep in the notice has at least one bud should be planted.

About 1,500-1,800 kg sets of rhizomes are required to plant a one-hectare area. Make sure rhizomes are disease free and remove all the weeds and unwanted particles.

Seed Treatment:

Seed treatment is very important for the good growth of the plant and the production of ginger. Proper seed treatment will protect the plant from soil-borne diseases and seed-borne diseases.

The major benefits of seed treatment in ginger are:-

  • It will prevent the spread of plant diseases among other ginger plants.
  • Two common diseases of ginger are seed rot and blight. Doing seed treatment can protect plants from these diseases.
  • We have found that ginger seed treatment improves the germination rate.
  • Proper seed treatment in ginger will control soil-borne insects.

Before sowing, rhizomes of ginger are treated with Mancozeb@3 mg/L of water. Dip rhizomes for 30min in solution. It will protect rhizomes from all different fungal infestations. After treatment, we should dry the rhizomes in shade for 3-4 hours.

ginger seeds

Propagation of ginger:

We can propagate ginger in two different ways:-

  • Direct planting
  • Transplanting technology

Direct planting

We can plant directly ginger into the soil or we can also grow ginger by transplanting technology.

While planting, seed rhizomes mixed with well-rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma (10 g of compost inoculated with Trichoderma) may be put in shallow pits and covered with a thin layer of soil and leveled. Before showing ginger, farmers can also grow leguminous green manure and incorporate it into the soil; After growing, it will increase the production of ginger because there are a lot of advantages of green manure

We should cover the beds with leaf mulch as it will protect against bright sunlight and heavy rainfall and for consequent enrichment of organic matter in the soil. We can also use farmyard manure as mulch.

Ginger Propagation through transplanting:

Though transplanting ginger is not conventional, we found it very profitable to produce good quality yields with reduced costs.

For this process, we need single bud sprouts (weight should be approx 5 g) to raise transplants from sprout seed rhizomes on the pro – tray and plant them in the field after 30 – 40 days.

The advantages of this technology are the production of healthy planting materials and reduction in seed rhizome quantity and eventually reduced the costing of seeds.

Farmers should notice these important points in the transplantation of ginger.

  • Always select healthy ginger rhizomes for seed. It will give good growth and production.
  • Treat the selected rhizomes with mancozeb (0.3%) and quinalphos (0.075%) for 30 min and store them in a well-ventilated place.
  • One month before planting, we have to cut the seed rhizomes into single buds with small pieces of rhizomes weight should be between 4 grams to 6 grams.
  • Treat the single bud sprouts (mancozeb 0.3%) for 30 minutes before planting.
  • Fill the pro-trays with a nursery medium containing partially decomposed coir pith and vermicompost (at the rate of 75:25), enriched with PGPR/Trichoderma 10g/kg of mixture.
  • Plant the ginger bud sprouts in pro-trays.
  • Maintain the pro-trays under the shade net house.
  • Adopt needs-based irrigation with a rose can or by using sprinklers.
  • Seedlings will be ready within 30-40 days of transplanting.

After seedling, get ready to transplant. Then it’s time to show in the field carefully don’t damage the major root of the plant. It can decrease the success rate of plants.

Mulching:

Mulching is a process that is used in soil and water conservation. We can do mulching with dried leaves or plants that cover the soil bed.

  • Mulching ginger beds with green leaves is an important operation in ginger. We do this operation thrice in the entire process, once immediately after planting with @ 10 to 12 tons ha leaves or farmyard manure can be used, it will increase the enhance germination, increase organic matter, conserve soil moisture and prevent washing of soil because of heavy rains. 
  • The process should be repeated and we will use @ 4-5 tons /ha on the 40th and 90th day after planting, preferably at the time of weeding, hoeing, and earthing up.

Inter-Crop Ginger Cultivation:

In order to get crop yield, crop rotation is to be followed. The crops most commonly rotated with ginger are tapioca, ragi, paddy, gingerly, maize, and vegetables. You can also grow ginger as an intercrop in the coconut fields, coffee fields, and oranges fields. 

However, you must avoid crop rotation using tomatoes, potatoes, chilies, brinjal, and peanuts. These plants are hosts for the wilt-causing organism, Ralstonia Solanacearum.

Manure and Fertilizer Requirement:
  • A well-composed cattle manure or compost at 25-30 tons per ha along with 2 tons of neem cake is to be applied along with 50 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O at the time of planting.
  • Besides, 75kg of nitrogen per ha is to be applied in two equal split doses at 40 and 90 days after planting.
  • The plants are to be earthed up after each top dressing with the fertilizers and beds rectified.

But we recommend doing soil tests before considering nutrient management, as the soil fertility will vary with the soil type, agro-ecological conditions, or management systems. Soil test-based fertilizer recommendations for fresh rhizome yield target levels of 25 and 30 tons/ha.

Soil test value for nutrients (kg/ha) Fertilizer recommended for yield targets of 25 t/ha nutrient (kg/ha) 30 t/ha
Nitrogen
< 150 250 340
150-250 180 270
250-400 90 175
> 400 50
Phosphorus (P2O5)
< 10 55 75
10-30 35 55
30-50 15 25
> 50 5-10
Potassium (K2O)
< 110 100 130
110-300 75 100
300-500 35 50
> 500 5 15

We can cultivate organically ginger as an inter-crop or mixed crop with other crops, provided all we grew the other crops following organic methods. 

Pests and Disease management:
Name of the disease:- Damage symptoms and how to treat the damage:-
Ginger shoot borer
  • Shoot borer is a very serious pest of ginger; infestation starts in June month and will continue till October.
  • The moth lays eggs on the growing bud, petiole, or leaf of the young plants.
  • This can be controlled by roguing and pruning the infested pseudostem during July-August at fortnightly intervals.
  • In order to treat them biologically, predators like Bracon sp, Apanteles taragammae, and parasitoids like Eriborus sp., Friona Sp, Agrypone sp are introduced.
  • Apply entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae @ 100 IJ/larva or Hexamermis sp or Apply Bacillus thuringiensis (0.3%) at monthly intervals during July–August or Spraying neem oil @ 0.5% during July–October at 21 days interval.
Leaf roller
  • It is an olive green caterpillar with a distinct black head that folds the leaves.
  • Two sprays of Nimbecidine or Neemazal @ 3ml/l at 15 days intervals have also been effective against leaf roller.
  • 2-3 foliar sprays of garlic-chilli extract with 2.5% neem oil with soft soap starting from the appearance of pests at an interval of 10-15 days is quite effective.
White grub
  • Pest infestation leads to the yellowing of leaves. In severe infestation, the pseudostem may be cut at the basal region. We may lose the entire crop in severely infested plantations. 
  • Application of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae mixed with vermicompost or drenching the soil with these entomopathogenic fungi @ 5 g/l gives effective results
  • Application of EPN Heterorhabditis spp @ 50 lah IJ/5 lit of water is also effective to control the pest. 
Soft rot 
  • The symptom initially appears as a water-soaked lesion in the collar region of the pseudostem of the rhizome.
  • Using disease-free, healthy rhizomes for planting and crop rotation helps to prevent this type of disease.
  • Hot water treatment of rhizome at 50-52oC for 30 minutes followed by treatment of the rhizome with Trichoderma viride @ 8-10 mg/kg seed.
  • Application of FYM and other organic manure to increase the population of beneficial microorganisms.
Bacterial wilt
  • Mild, drooping, and curling of leaf margins of the lower leaves, which spread upwards.
  • Yellowing starts from the lowermost leaves and gradually progresses to the upper leaves.
  • Soil amendment with dolomite to increase the pH of the soil.
  • Apply bleaching powder @ 25 kg per ha. Provision of good drainage since water stagnation predisposes the plant to infection.
  • Once the disease is noticed in the field, we should drench all beds with a 1% Bordeaux mixture. 
Leaf spot
  • Oval to elongated water-soaked spots will appear on the leaves. Spots will develop a white papery center and dark brown margin with a yellowish halo surrounding them.
  • Growing the crop under partial shade.
  • Application of Bordeaux mixture @ 1 percent or copper oxychloride @ 0.3 percent effectively controls the disease.
Dry rot / yellows / Fusarium wilt
  • It is a fungus-nematode complex disease. The disease appears in small patches in the field and spreads slowly.
  • Hot water treatment of rhizome at 50-52oC for 30 minutes followed by treatment of the rhizome with Trichoderma viride @ 8-10 gm/kg seed.
  • For nematode management, Paecilomyces lilacinus may also be used along with the above biopesticides @ 2.5 kg each/ha mixed with compost/ FYM.
Harvesting:

Ginger attains full maturity in 210-240 days after planting. Harvesting of ginger for vegetables starts after 180 days based on the demand. We estimated the average yield of green ginger at about 6 to 10 tons per acre. The recovery of dry ginger varies from 16 to 25%.

ginger ready for harvesting

Yield after doing ginger farming:

If our ginger farming field is a well-maintained crop, the average yield we will get is between 15 to 20 tons/ha of ginger rhizomes.

Thanks to websites like researchgate and icar, for doing continuous research on ginger. We have studied new research and development about ginger.

Suraj Singh
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