Bengal gram Cultivation all Important Details of Bengal gram

All About Bengal Gram In Details

In this post, we are going to give details of Bengal gram. And going to discuss details all about Bengal gram cultivation practice.

Introduction to Bengal Gram:

Bengal Gram is an important pulse crop in India. The Botanical Name of Bengal gram is Cicer arietinum L. the word Cicer arietinum is derived from the Roman word. And the origin of Bengal gram is western Asia (Turkey). We knew it as Channa in Hindi, gram or chickpea in English. it is one of the most important Rabi crops in India.  We mainly grow Bengal gram in the cold season.

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Bengal gram cultivation fruiting stage

Importance of Bengal gram.

It is one of the most important sources of protein, minerals, vitamins & calories. It is a popular alternative for animal meat because it is a rich source of protein. The protein percentage of Bengal gram is 23% which is much higher than other cereals. The Carbohydrate Percentage of a gram is 64%, as per research it is also rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, it also has a rich content of calcium, magnesium & also iron, Bengal gram does not come in cash crop example but it is very important for our lifestyle.

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Use of Bengal Gram:

We use gram food for both humans and animal consumption. We use it as dal and flour. Using gram flour for many recipes differently. Bengal gram is used in recipes as socked, boiled, fried, salted, unsalted, etc

We used gram flour to prepare different sweet fried items, and we also use it for bathing. There are many medicinal values of the Bengal Gram, such as we used it for blood purification. Germinated gram can cure scurvy like disease, leaves of the green gram are used to treat intestinal troubles. Gram is also used to feed horses and cattle because of the rich content of protein. We also used the straw of the Bengal gram as fodder for the cattle.

Health Benefits Of Bengal Gram

We know Bengal Gram as an energy booster,

We know Bengal Gram as an energy booster because it helps to increase the level of energy in the body because of the presence of an outrageous amount of protein as compared to another leguminous crop. We use it after soaking in the water we consume overnight sprouted gram. Because of the rich content of protein, we also used it as animal feedings ex:- horse.

Bengal gram flour for facial care

We also used gram flour for facial care to treat the number of skin problems, like pimples, acne, scabies, etc for the process of treatment. Bengal gram flour is mixed with water or milk and applied on the face for some hour then washed.

Bengal Gram for treatment of anaemia

As we know that Bengal gram is rich in protein, vitamins, fats & several minerals this help in increasing the haemoglobin count. And we know that anaemia is a deficiency of iron.

Bengal Gram For Digestive System

Bengal gram is used to treat digestive problems like indigestion, vomiting, constipation. Bengal gram is very useful for digestive problems because it contains fibres.

Bengal Gram For Diabetes

As we know Diabetes is one of the big health issues numbers of people are suffering from it, as we have above talked about that Bengal gram increases the energy level of the body increase the strength of the body it also increases the power of the body to absorb the glucose and also increase the power of pancreas.

Distribution Over The World

We know gram as one of the most important pulse crops all over the world. The major gram growing countries are India, Pakistan, Mexico, Turkey, Burma, Australia, America, etc.

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Types Of Gram 

As we Know gram comes from the family of Leguminosae.

We can mainly divide grams into two types:-

  • 1st is Brown Gram Also Known as Desi gram
  • 2nd is White Gram, Also known as Kabuli Chana

Desi gram is known as a good source of protein and minerals, Desi Gram have more yield as compared to the white gram. If we compare in size white gram is large and Desi gram is small, the colour of the Desi gram can vary from yellow to brown, and the colour of a white gram is white, plants of a white gram are tall and less branched but the plant of a brown gram is small but more branched. If we compare the production, Brown gram has more products as compared to the white gram.

Bengal Gram cultivation flowering stage
Bengal Gram
Climatic Requirement Of Bengal Gram

As we know, gram requires a cold climate for proper growth and development, so in the country where the environmental condition is temperate, we cultivate it in the spring and summer seasons. For example, in India, it is grown in winter. If we talk about the temperature for growing, the green gram is between 15 degrees to 25 degrees Celsius, for the proper germination it requires temperature approx. 15 degrees, below these reduces the rate of germination percentage.

It requires properly maintained temperature. The Cold, frost & heavy rain is not good for the proper growth and development of the gram. Gram also requires proper sunlight for its vegetative growth. As we know, that leguminous crop requires less amount of rainfall because they have a deep root system, so gram also has less amount of water requirement. The waterlogged condition is very dangerous for this crop because it will destroy the entire crop.

Soil Requirement for Bengal gram Cultivation:

We can grow gram in many types of soil, but we grew it on the type of soil where other crops can’t grow like wheat, we can grow it on sandy soil, sandy loam soil to deep black soil. For the best growth and development of gram crop, it is grown on deep loam & also on silt clay loam soil but the soil should be free from excessive salt.

Gram can’t grow on too light soil because light soil has the less moisture-holding capacity and by this, the process of growth slows down, and gram also can’t grow on heavy soil because it has a high water-holding capacity which is not good for gram because it requires a less amount of water.

Varieties For Bengal Gram cultivation

As we have Previously Described that there are two different grams 1st is brown gram 2nd is white gram if we talk about the varieties of grams:-

  1. Brown gram has two important varieties 1st is Radley & Pant G-114 other varieties are Pusa 209, Pusa 408etc
  2. White gram also has two important Varieties K-5, ICCC-32, etc
Land Preparation For Bengal Gram Farming

As we know, gram has a deep root system, so at the time of field preparation, it needs deep ploughing & harrowing for the proper aeration in the zone of roots.

In a rainfed area gram is grown with the moisture that is conserved in the soil, so deep tillage at the starting of rainy season is to be done because deep tillage opens the pores of the soil & it ensures the high rate of moisture conservation, conserved water helps the plant at the time of physiological wilt. Conserved moisture helps to penetrate the roots deep into the soil.

Process Of Sowing Of Bengal Gram farming

Time Of Sowing

Gram is one of the most important Rabi crops. It requires a cold weather and it is sown in the first fortnight of October, in this period soil has the proper amount of moisture and it helps in the proper growth and development of the plant.

Seed Rate for gram cultivation

Gram needs proper environmental conditions for growth and development. There are two varieties and both have different seed rates.

  • Desi varieties need 50 to 75 Kg of seed /hec for sowing.
  • white gram needs 75 to 100 kg of seed /hec for sowing.

Seed Treatment

Seed should be treated With P-solubilizer at 375 gram/hac.

Spacing

The spacing between plant to plant is 10- 12 cm and the spacing between row to row should be 30 cm. This is the proper spacing for the growth and development of grams.

Method of Sowing

The depth of sowing in gram is 5 -7 cm, which is suitable for the germination of seed. We use a seed drilling machine or country plough for the sowing.

Nutrient Management in Bengal Gram farming

Manure 

For Gram, the requirement of Farmyard manure {fym} is approx 12-15 t/hac we spread it after the first ploughing.

Fertilizers

1. Nitrogen: As we know, gram is a leguminous crop and the nitrogen fixation fixes the required major amount of nitrogen and we should fill the remaining requirement with organic matter like fym. If soil doesn’t have the proper amount of organic matter, then 10 to 20 kg of nitrogen should apply. Nitrogen requirement will be less if farmers grow green manure crops before Bengal gram Cultivation.

2. Phosphorus: Requirement of phosphorus in gram is 60 kg to 65kg/ha is sufficient for the gram.

3. Potassium: Requirement of Potassium in Bengal Gram Cultivation is very less, and the less requirement is because a sufficient amount of Potassium is present in Indian soil.

Irrigation Management In Bengal Gram Cultivation

As we know that Bengal gram is a Rabi crop and it has a deep root system, so it is easy for gram to take the stored moisture from the soil, water requirement for gram cultivation is less, we should give very little supplemental irrigation at the critical stage.

There are some critical stages in Bengal gram cultivation, like a late flowering and pod setting in which it requires irrigation. If the proper amount of moisture is not present in the soil then we should provide supplemental irrigation according to condition of moisture in the soil.

Weed Management In Bengal Gram Cultivation

As we know that Bengal Gram is a leguminous crop & same as all grams it is very sensitive to weed & weed competition reduce the yield up to 40 to 80%. Weeding is done by the mechanical method in gram and the instruments used in the process of weeding are khurpi, hand hoe, etc

All the competition between gram and weed is at the initial stage of which it is necessary for first wedding which should be done after 5 to 6 weeks of sowing. We also use chemical methods for weed control in gram, chemicals like pyrometry at 0.50kg/ha or Alachlor at 1.50 kg/ha is used. Some chemicals that are useful for controlling the weed before they emerge in the field is Methabenzthiazuron which is applied at 1.50kg per hec.

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Plant Protection in Bengal Gram Cultivation

Insect Pests

We can say that gram is a magical leguminous crop because other leguminous crop was attacked by many insects and pests but only some insect-pest attack Bengal gram

The reason behind these magical features of a gram is:-

The gram plant is covered with small glandular hair on the whole plant, which exudes acid drops that contain malic acid which protects the plant from insects. We mainly do Bengal Gram Cultivation in winter & this is the season when the population of insect pests is very less than compared to summer. 

Common insects and pests in Bengal gram

Gram Pod Borer: Gram pod borer is one of the most serious pests of the gram which can cause damage to up to 60 to 75% of the grains

These are the common control measures are as follows.

The first method to control is to use resistant varieties of gram ex:- ICC 506, BG 256 etc, the second method is early sowing between 15 to 30 Oct can also control pod borer, the third method is the most common method that is inter-cropping Bengal gram with wheat, mustard farming etc, fourth is to use common insecticides like a spray of Endosulfan, fifth, we can also use a neem oil spray to control insects.

Gram Cutworm: Gram cutworm is also one of the serious pests that can affect yield. It mainly attacks the field in the cloudy area.

Chemical insecticides that can control it like Endosulfan at 20 kg per ha. We can use the dusting method of spraying insecticide, we can apply this method or we can also use it by mixing in the soil at 20 to 25 kg per ha.

Termites: termites can also make extensive damage to the Bengal gram, but soil and seed treatment can control them or maintaining soil moisture can also control termites.

Diseases in Bengal gram

There are three most common diseases that can do extensive damage in Bengal gram are:-

Blight, Fusarium Wilt, Dry Root Rot

Blight disease of Bengal gram:- Blight is the most common disease which attacks in the season of cultivation. It is the most serious disease of gram. Different methods can control it like crop rotation, deep showing, inter-cropping, seed treatment with thiram or captain.

Fusarium Wilt disease of Bengal gram:- Fusarium Wilt is a disease in which over transpiration takes place, these pathogens attack the xylem and root system of the plant. Resistant varieties like ICC 202, ICC 391 etc controls this disease, it can be also controlled by seed treatment with Bavistin

Dry Root Rot disease of Bengal gram:- Dry Root Rot is the most common fungal disease where the main roots rot. This can be controlled by seed treatment with Captan & Thiram at 2.5 gram per kg seed,

Harvesting in Bengal Gram Cultivation

Harvesting the crop of a Bengal gram is done when it is fully mature. The moisture content in the grain should be less than 20% at the time of harvesting. Harvesting can be done by handpicking method or by cutting the whole plant by sickle. The harvested plant should be sun-dried for 5 to 6 days before storage.

gram harvesting

The yield of Bengal Gram

  • The yield of a Bengal gram in the rainfed condition is approx 7 to 8 quintals per hec
  • The yield of Desi variety is about 20 – 25 quintal per hec
  • The yield of Kabuli variety is about 25 – 35 quintel per hec

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