In this blog, we are going to explain the full barley cultivation will detail we will discuss the origin of barley, the economic importance of barley, the medicinal value of the barley, climatic requirement of the barley, soil requirement, seed rate and all cultivation detail read it down.
Barley Cultivation In Short
|Barley Scientific Name:-||Hordeum vulgare.|
|Barley Origin:-||south-east Asia.|
|Barley Climatic Requirement:-||Growing 13 to 16 degrees Celsius, Maturity 25 to 30 degrees Celsius.|
|Suitable Soil For Barley:-||Sandy Loam soil, PH 6 to 8.|
|Seed Rate:-||100kg per hectare.|
|Barley Varieties:-||Ratna, Vijaya, Azad, Clipper, etc.|
|Barley Fertilizer Requirement:-||12.5t/ha FYM, 60kg – 65 kg nitrogen, 30kg to 35kg phosphorus.|
|Irrigation:-||2 to 3 irrigation.|
|Weeding in barley:-||First Hand weeding 30 days after sowing.|
|Harvesting:-||The yellowing of straw is the symbol of maturity.|
|Yield:-||3 to 3.5 tons yield of barley, straw yield 4 to 5 yield.|
Barley Cultivation in details
Introduction of Barley Cultivation
Barley Botanical Name:- Hordeum vulgare
Barley is one of the most important crops next to rice, wheat, maize in area and production. According to scientists, we can grow more production because this soil and climatic condition are more suitable For Barley than wheat.
Barley is hard, and it can grow in very adverse conditions. It doesn’t require so much favourable condition to grow, it can easily grow in adverse conditions like drought, it can grow in saline soil and also grow in alkaline soil.
If we compare the topography, barley can easily grow in hills and plains, both. We can do Barley cultivation in the rained condition and also in irrigated conditions. The farmers mostly preferred it where they cannot grow wheat because of adverse condition
Origin of Barley-
They document the origin of barley in many regions. In some documents, we can see the origin in south-east Asia that is currently China, Tibet & Nepal. In some places, you will also get the origin of barley in Syria in 8000 BC. According to the latest documentation origin of barley in Egypt was about 16000 BC.
Barley Cultivation Economic importance
Barley is a rabi crop. We know barley for the food for people who leave in the cooler place and semi-arid region of the world. In Asian countries, they use Barley directly for human consumption, but we use barley in many other ways like to make malt, beer, whisky and industrial alcohol, vinegar.
Barley contains a large amount of protein-11.5%, carbohydrate-74%, fat-1.3%, Crude fibre -3.9%, ash -1.5% Because of this specification, they used it in many Energy-rich drinks like boost, Horlicks are from barley malt.
Demand for barley is very good in different countries, so the excellent quality of grain production may give foreign exchanges
Medicinal value Of Barley:
Barley is rich in fibre which is very helpful in reducing cholesterol levels in the liver. It also stimulates fatty acid synthesis in the liver.
Because of its rich content in nutrients and fibres, it is used to make feeds for animals like cattle and horses. It is also used to make biscuits for old people.
Because barley has an enough amount of protein content, the demand for barley is very much high in the malt industry.
Climatic Requirement for Barley Cultivation:
We know barley as a cool-season crop because it performs so good in a cool climate, the climatic requirement of barley is very similar to wheat crop ?, barley Can’t tolerate frost conditions. During the flowering period, Frost and hail storms will damage the crop.
For the proper growth and development, barley requires a temperature between 13 to 16 degrees Celsius for maturity it requires a temperature between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius.
The main specialty of the barley is it can tolerate soil with high sodium content and drought conditions. This makes barley so unique crop.
Soil Requirement For Barley Farming:
Barley can grow in many types of soil. Favourable soil for the proper growth and development of barley is Sandy Loam soil, Loam soil and Medium & Heavy Black Soils.
As we have observed, barley can easily grow in any type of soil with the proper amount of sand silt and clay. We should maintain the PH of the soil between 7 to 8 for the proper cultivation of barley.
Well-drained soil is very suitable for the growth of barley. We will suggest farmers not to cultivate barley in acidic soil because it is not suitable for barley farming.
Barley is a salt-tolerant crop so it can easily grow in the sodic soil and it can easily grow in different soil like lighter soil, saline soil, black soil, etc.
Season and Seed Rate For Barley Cultivation
The sowing time period of barley depends on the production condition.
In irrigated condition sowing time is in November between 11 Nov to 26 Nov, for late irrigated sowing should be done between 25 Nov to 30 Dec.
In plains where irrigation is available, we do barley sowing between 20 October to 15 November and in the hilly region, we do barley sowing between mid-October to the first week of November.
The seed rate for the irrigated condition is 100 kg seed per hectare and for late irrigated sowing seed requirement is 125 kg per hec. For hilly regions, 100kg seed is required for sowing.
We should maintain proper spacing in sowing for irrigated condition 20 to 23 cm should maintain and for rainfed plains 21 to 24 cm space should be maintained, in hilly region seed sowing should be done with the spacing of 22 to 23 cm.
Varieties of Barley
There are mainly 2 types of barley
- Husk-less Barley
- Hulled Barley
we suggest farmers for barley farming to use a husk-less variety of barley.
Varieties for Barley cultivation Suited for hills
- Himani–sowing of this variety is done in medium to lower hills. It takes 140 -145 days and gives the production of 3-3.5t /ha.
- Dolma–sowing of this variety is done in medium to high elevation. It takes 140-145 days and gives a production of 4.0t /ha.
Varieties Suited for Rainfed areas
- Ratna–It takes 125-130 days, gives the production of 2.5–3.0t/ha
- Vijay–It takes 120-130 days, gives the production of 3.0 -3.5t/ha
- Azad–It takes 115-120days, gives the production of 3.5–3.8t/ha
- Ameru–It takes 130-133days, giving the production of 2.5 03.0t/ha. This variety is best for malt.
Varieties Suited for irrigated areas
- Jyoti–It takes 120-125days, gives the production of 3.5-4.0t/ha
- Ranjit–It takes 125-130days, gives the production of 3.0-3.5t’ha
- Clipper–It takes 135-140days, gives the production of 2.8-3.0t/ha best for making malt & brewing
- Karan 18 & 19–5.0–5.6t/ha
Barley Varieties For Dual purpose (fodder and grain)-
These four varieties Ratna, Karan2, Karan 5, Karan 10 are for dual purpose variety. We used it mainly for fodder and grains.
Land preparation & Fertilizer Requirement for barley farming:
Moderate to fine tilth soil is very suitable for barley cultivation. Ploughing before sowing will remove termites, ants and other insects from the soil.
green manure will increase the yield of barley.
We can do sowing after zero tillage in the field.
Fertilizer requirements in barley cultivation is less.
Before sowing, we will suggest applying to Farm Yard Manures at 12.5t/ha for the irrigated conditions we recommend 60kg to 65 kg nitrogen, and 30kg to 35kg phosphorus. For rainfed conditions and for hilly region phosphorous requirement is very less it requires only 30 to 35 kg nitrogen and 15 to 20 kg phosphorous.
Method of sowing For Barley farming:
For the control of soil born disease, seed treatment is very important before sowing. We will suggest treating the seed with Thiram + Bavistin or Vitavax at 2.5 grams per kg seed.
We use many sowing methods For Barley farming.
Broadcasting, drilling, Dibbling are the most common method used for sowing barley, nowadays farmers also use methods like Zero / No-tillage sowing and behind the plough method used.
Method of Fertilizer Application:
We will suggest applying 50% of nitrogen as the basal dose with 50% of phosphorus and potash at first irrigation. We should split the remaining dose of fertilizer between first and second irrigation.
Water management in Barley Farming:
Barley requires 200 to 300 mm of irrigation. We will suggest 2 to 3 irrigation during the whole cultivation.
Critical periods of irrigation in Barley:
Crown root Initiation, Panicle Emergence are two different stages which are very important stages of barley, crown root initiation after 20 to 30 days after sowing, Panicle Emergence after 60 to 70 days after sowing
Other important critical irrigation periods are:
- Seedling/sprouting stage
- Active tillering stage
- Flag leaf stage
- Milking or soft dough stages
- Tillering and grain filling are so crucial
Weed management for Barley Cultivation:
We should do weeding by hand should up to 30 days of sowing. We can also use the herbicide for the removal of weed.
Preemergence of weeds can be stopped by using herbicide Isoproturan 0.75 kg/ha
Barley is a fast-growing crop so it will not let weeds grow fast. It will suppress the growth of weed.
Mixed crops for Barley:
We can grow barley with chickpea. We can also do barley farming with pea, mustard farming, linseed and lentil.
Harvesting of barley:
We can easily see the yellow and dry straw of barley that is the first indicator of maturity in plants. The most suitable stage is when the grain moisture is between 20-25%, we will recommend doing manual harvesting when it is completely dry. The method of harvesting by the combined harvester is also good.
After yellowing and drying of straw, if we will do late harvesting, we can see Shredding, breaking of spikes. This will cause a loss in yield.
We should do storage of the grain when moisture percentage in the grains is between 10 to 12%.
Yield of barley:
From barley we get two different yields:
- Barley Grain yield will be between 3000 to 3500-kilogram barley per hectare
- Barley Straw Yield is between 4 to 5 tons per hectare
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